SIGISMUND III VASA’S EXPEDITION TO SWEDEN (POLISH-SWEDISH WAR, 1598)
“A beautiful Polish song about the Swedish-Polish War in 1598. In this year, the Catholic Sigismund Vasa, legitimate hereditary king of Sweden, (and also elective king of Poland), was forced to lead a military expedition against his native country, Sweden, to suppress the rebellion led by his Protestant uncle, Duke Karl. The ambitious Duke had been appointed Regent of Sweden, but took advantage of Sigismund's protracted absences in Poland to initiate a revolt. He exploited Sigismund's Catholicism to pose as the heroic defender of Protestantism in Sweden (which had already experienced a Lutheran reformation under previous Vasa kings). Sigismund's expedition was a failure; his far more ruthless uncle crushingly defeated him at the Battle of Stångebro. Sigismund fled to Poland soon afterwards, and lost his Swedish crown. The usurping uncle became king, and cruelly suppressed Sigismund's supporters, executing many leading noblemen who had fought for their rightful monarch. Karl's son, Gustavus Adolphus, would later achieve fame as the Protestant champion in the Thirty Years War.” – Quotation from the blog “The sword and the sea” by Matterhorn.
1- Sigismund Vasa was the rightful hereditary-king of Sweden (and elected-king of Poland) who our ancestors chosen to support. Following him, they must had leave Sweden and settled in Poland.
2- Polish-Swedish Union. Hope to Catholicism in Sweden.
3- Dynastic and religion war in Sweden. The first Polish-Swedish war (properly).
4- Loyalists Swedes exiled in Poland (some examples) – Princess Anna Vasa, Baron Johan Gyllenstierna (Swedish and Polish admiral), Count Gustav Brahe (Polish general), etc.
5- End of the Swedish civil war. It was a disastrous end to the Protestant Loyalist, and the Roman Catholic minority.
6- The Linkoping Bloodbath – Protestant loyalists were persecuted as well as Roman Catholics, which were banished of any high-office in Sweden-Finland.
7- Polish-Swedish wars
8- More Swedish-Catholics reach Poland-Lithuania. For example, event after the battle of Czarne (Hammerstein), 1627: "Some Swedish soldiers… changed sides at that time”.
* Some controversies about this last source:
Kadrinazi (my friend and remarkable blogger) said...
“I'm afraid…There is no proof that there were any native Swedes present in this battle at all, as whole force were mercenaries (under Swedish service) recruited by colonels Streiff and Teuffel in Mecklenburg. Majority of soldiers (both foot and cavalry) indeed change sides and were enlisted into Polish ranks, but that wasn't the case with officers who were taken prisoners and later exchange with Swedes for Poles in Swedish captivity. I dare to say that I study 1625-1629 war with great care and I have access to many Polish and Swedish sources, none of which mentioned Swedish (native) officers changing sides.”
Polish Wikipedia doesn’t say anything about too. I was astonished. Yet I choose English Wikipedia version because many years ago (1976 or 77) when I was living in Sao Paulo, Brazil, one friend (History teacher with skills in Polish history and Polish nobility) told me the same thing that Wikipedia says. He believed those Swedes were probably still Catholics (in secret) or Lutheran Loyalists (also in secret) that took the opportunity to change sides. This friend in question had access to an excellent library in Brazil. I supposed he took this after some of the Polish history books he had read. To be honest, I never knew from what source he got that. Also, may be this incident happened after other battle during Polish-Swedish wars (not necessary Czarne/Hammerstein). When I saw this issue in English Wikipedia I believed honestly that it was the proper case. As people may understand I remember this conversation by heart so I may be mistaken about the proper battle. Anyway, in the battle of Czarne or in any other battle, the main issue remains that some Swedish military (still Loyalists or Catholics – in secret) profited the opportunity to change sides (perhaps in different occasions and in several times).
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